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Body Parts

  • ϭⲓϫ - Mark body parts as objects.

Dynamic Passive

  • ⲥⲉ ⲕⲁ ⲛⲉⲕ ⲛⲟⲃⲉ - Either “They forgive your sins” or “Your sins are forgiven”: Always annotate the subject (ⲥⲉ) as an entity.

Expletive pronouns

Correlative/expletive pronouns are not annotated as entities at all:

  • ⲁ [ϥ] ϫⲱ ⲙⲙⲟ ⲥ - he said: - ⲥ is not annotated


  • No annotations are needed for interrogatives.

No reference inside compounds

In morphologically complex items containing a verb inside a larger token, that noun cannot be annotated:

  • ⲁ ϥ ϫⲓⲃⲁⲡⲧⲓⲥⲙⲁ - he received-baptism (baptism cannot be annotated as a markable, since it's part of an incorporated verb 'to baptize')

Non-numeral modifiers

  • ϩⲁϩ n-X - lots of x
  • ⲛⲟⲩⲟⲉⲓϣ ⲛⲓⲙ - always - Mark these with one referent only

Possessive Constructions

  • ⲡⲁⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ - the ones belonging to Paul - Such constructions should take the possessor in the span. [ⲡⲁ[ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ]]

Predicate of unchanging identity

  • ⲡ ⲟⲩⲁ ⲡ ⲟⲩⲁ - each man - Mark as two separate entities


  • ⲛⲉⲥ ⲉⲣⲏⲩ -itself - Mark with one entity

Relative Clauses

The relative converter ⲉⲧ is not considered referential. In relative clauses with explicit subject pronouns, those pronouns are annotated as usual:

  • ⲙ [ⲡ ⲙⲁ ⲉⲧ [ϥ] ⲛϩⲏⲧ [ϥ]] - The place that he is in (it)

Note that this results in the second pronoun pointing back to the span that contains it - this is allowed in WebAnno.

Singular noun referring to a group of people

  • ⲡ ⲙⲏⲏϣⲉ - The crowd: is marked with “person”

Two entity types in one chain

  • ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲓⲥⲧⲟⲥ… ⲧⲉⲓ ⲥⲛⲧⲉ - the Christ… this foundation - Mark each entity with its own type, e.g., Christ as person and Foundation as object
coptic_entities.txt · Last modified: 2019/06/09 00:03 by lance